Tourism is one of the main economic engines for nations with total contribution of 9.5% to global GDP and 8.9% of total employment in 2013. Tourism can only flourish if the industry can employ qualified staff or sustainable workforce which is the heart for excellent and prompt service delivery system. Thus, this review made to give summarized information about challenges and opportunities of tourism and hospitality employment. Narrative review was used where selected and related articles, reports and studies of the topic are compared and summarized.
Tourism and hospitality creates diversified employment opportunities in different sectors like accommodation, food and beverage establishments, transportation services, travel agencies, tour operation companies, natural and cultural attractions sites. The challenges are poor pay and working conditions, sexual harassment, discrimination, unequal treatment, low education and training, undemocratic and rigid corporate culture, seasonality and political instability which drastically reduce the number of visitors which in turn brings high employees’ turn over. Concerned stakeholders including, academicians, policy makers and business owners of tourism and hospitality shall take actions to bring sustainable work force for the development tourism and hospitality sectors.
Bachelor of Vocation (B.Voc.) Tourism and Hospitality Management is a graduate level program with the objective to provide adequate knowledge and skills related to Tourism.
The main objectives are –
To enable students to acquire knowledge and skills required by the industry and business sector. This program is a UGC-sponsored vocational programme and approved by the Tourism & Hospitality Skill Council. They simultaneously offer skill training as per the National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) under National Skill Development Corporation. It provides the right nurturing ground for students to pursue their ambitions.
Tourism management implements marketing efforts in attracting tourists to travel to particular destinations. This involves the management of a variety of activities such as:
- Studying tour destination;
- Planning the tour;
- Making travel arrangements;
- Providing accommodation.
Tourism and hospitality industries create many employment opportunities in different areas like accommodations, transportation, attractions sites.
Employment opportunities of tourism and hospitality sector:
Based on the involvement or contribution tourism supply side, employment opportunities in tourism and hospitality sectors can be created either directly or indirectly. Direct Employment opportunities are the total number of job opportunities supported by directly in travel and tourism. For example employment by hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, tourism information offices, museums, protected areas such as national parks, palaces, religious sites, monuments, aircrafts, cruise lines, resorts or shopping outlets, souvenirs, photography, sightseeing tours, farmhouses, bed and breakfast, rural inns, and guest houses local transportation (state owned airlines and railways, private transport facilities), Guides, cooks and scouts.
Tourism and hospitality also supports indirect employment in activities like restaurant suppliers, construction companies that build and maintain tourist facilities, as well as necessary infrastructure, aircraft manufacturers, various handicrafts producers, marketing agencies, accounting services, which are more or less dependent on the companies providing direct employment for their payment In a labour intensive industry such as tourism and hospitality the greater proportion of income is likely to be derived from wages and salaries paid to those working in jobs either directly serving the needs of tourists or benefitting indirectly from tourists’ spending . Income will be high in tourist destinations which attract large numbers of visitors; where visitors length of stay is maximum, customer spending of money is very high provided that multiple opportunities and activities are existing for customers to participate.
Today, Tourism and Hospitality sectors are the foremost sectors of the world economy. It improves balance of payments as well as income creation and employment opportunities. Tourism can be also nurturing sociocultural amplification of the people, empowering women and disabled communities by creating favorable job options. Due to this, both developed and developing countries give due attention for creating quality staff for quality tourism and hospitality industries to step on the sectors contribution for the country’s development.
Based on the review, tourism and hospitality industries have creating many job opportunities for millions of people in the world in different areas like accommodation, food and beverage (restaurants, dining rooms, cafes, fast nightclubs, bed and breakfasts, resorts, lounges, catering operations; airlines, airports, aircraft’s, ships, land transportation’s like trail, bus, travel agencies, tour operation companies), natural and cultural attractions such as national parks, caves, monuments, museums and galleries, theatres, concerts, festivals, carnivals, conferences, trade shows, and exhibitions). Technological advancement, increased income and conducive climate are the major favorable conditions for the development of the stated tourism and hospitality establishments to create millions of jobs.Read More